This section attempts to review the problematic media coverage of what is now known as homosexuality cases, with particular attention to the press. More specifically, the focus is on how the media has covered the arrests of individuals who are gay, or who are presumed to be so, and transgender women, during the period of the security crackdown discussed in this report.
The results presented here are based on the analysis of 153 news articles on the arrests of gay men and transgender women, or those presumed to be so. On top of the list is Youm7 with 77 news pieces, followed by Vetogate with 25 news pieces. The rest of the websites averaged less then 10 news pieces for each, including Sada al-Balad, Al-Masry al-Youm, Dot Masr and others.
Several news websites, chief among them Youm7 and Vetogate, alongside Bawaba News, cover vice crimes almost the same way. A number of lawyers and journalists, who were interviewed point out that the coverage often consists of the almost identical reproduction of Morality Police press releases.
This section starts with analysing these websites’ coverage of the arrests of individuals who are gay or presumed to be so, and transgender women, highlighting the main problems in this coverage. It then proceeds to a discussion of the role of the media in cooperating with the state in its targeting of those individuals. The section concludes with an analysis of crimes against gay men and transgender women, or those presumed to be so, some of which may be considered to constitute hate crimes and blackmail. One recurring theme in this coverage is the confusion of consensual same-sex relations between adults with crimes of sexual violence against members of the same sex.
Media Coverage of the Crackdown
Most aforementioned news websites, that cover incidents of arrests of gay men and transgender women and individuals with non-normative sexuality rely on a method aimed at creating a state of social moral panic. Through which gay men and transgender individuals are demonized, this happens by misrepresenting them, and portraying them as subhuman. Further there is an exaggeration when covering those events (arresting those individuals as a cataclysmic event) through sensationalist headlines in different media outlets, that magnify the actual scope of the incident (such as the heading, “Arresting the Largest Ring of Sexual Deviants”).
Moreover, these media outlets uses terms that are morally charged and demeaning to the dignity of the people arrested (referring to them as ‘sex deviants’, ‘third sex’ and associating them with terms such as ‘drugs’). All this contributes to demonizing this group of people. Those young people are depicted as a threat to the morals of society, and as violent and dangerous to other citizens, and are highlighted as criminals, especially if they are living with HIV/AIDS.
Academic literature defines moral panics as attempts to maintain sharp boundaries between different identities and patterns of behaviour, as well as maintaining prevalent ideas about specific identities and groups. When these inevitably stereotypical ideas are threatened, the reaction to change can take the form of moral panic.1
Ramy Aly, professor of anthropology at the American University in Cairo, agrees with this analysis, stating that “the current regime derives its legitimacy from portraying itself as the only protection against the rule of chaos, in large part by imposing law and order.” In his view, the principal aim of creating moral panic remains “instilling fear within the people and distracting them from urgent social or economic problems.”
Our analysis of dozens of news articles covering arrests on debauchery charges by the Morality Police reveals common characteristics. Following a shocking headline, the articles usually go directly on to provide almost an identical copy of the contents of press statements released by the Morality Police Directorate. The articles also often name the officers who played a role in the raids.
All the articles use language that is degrading and stigmatizing of gay men and transgender women. Some of the primary characteristics of this coverage is the violation of the privacy of those arrested, such as publishing their names, details about their lives (their place of employment and so on) and even multiple photos without taking into consideration the necessary precautions to safeguard the anonymity of these individuals and their privacy.
Additionally, the headlines inflate the proportions of incidents in question and presume the guilt of those detained. On the one hand, this is because they are simply reproducing police statements, and on the other, it aims, through that kind of coverage, to create a sense of suspense among the readers. Many of these headlines present the arrest of people in cases of debauchery as arrests of “largest ring” of “sexual deviants.” Such as the following example:
- “Seizure of Sexual Deviants Ring Organizing Parties in a Nasr City Apartment”2
- “In pictures: The details of the fall of the largest ring of sexual deviants in a public bathhouse in Azbakiya.. 5 pimps run the bathhouse and lure shemales to practice debauchery in exchange for payment.. the prosecution orders the detention of the pimps and refers 21 men arrested in the bathhouse to medical examination.”3
- “In pictures: The details of the fall of Doudy’s ring for sexual deviants in Alexandria. Ahmed Doudy confesses: ‘I like men. I don't want money and I don’t trust girls. I wish Egypt allowed us the same freedom as in the US and other foreign countries.’”4
- “The arrest of Abd al-Aleem (Marleemo), the most notorious sexual deviant in Giza”5
As targeting gay men and transgender women by the Morality Police shifted to dating applications and websites, most of the cases came to involve only one or two people. As a result, the police began to gather the numbers of arrests into one statement, representing their activities as successes against “rings of sexual deviants.” For instance, two news articles on different websites in 2015 report the arrest of seven individuals6. It is only upon reading the actual articles, however, that it becomes clear that the seven people have no relation to one another and in no way constitute a “ring.” One of those people was arrested in Nasr City, two in Heliopolis, a third in 6th of October City while the others lived in different governorates and had no association with one another as each was entrapped separately.
The language used by these news sites is not only stigmatizing to these individuals but it also refers to acts that are not criminalized in the first place. It uses a morally charged language that is degrading to those with non-normative sexualities or gender identities. According to these news sites, the sexual acts they describe are examples of “vice” and gay men are “sexual deviants.” They use terms such as “shemale” or “sissy” to refer to transgender women. They refer to sex work as prostitution and to extramarital sex as sinful pleasure. They refer to the rape of male children under 18 years old also as “sexual deviancy.” The following are some of the examples used to report about those arrested in a way that undermines their humanity:
- “They were accustomed to practising vice and debauchery with men only. They were addicted to committing debauchery and couldn't resist it.”7
- “Charges of practising vice”8
- “Detention of a shemale with the body of a woman and male genitals in an apartment in 6th of October City”9
From mid-2015 onwards, these sites began to cover cases of online entrapment through dating applications and websites, as if it was a legal and legitimate practice. Consider the following example:
“According to the investigations, an officer of the Morality Police communicated with the suspect posing as a seeker of illicit pleasure with a man. The defendant showed him photos of the men working for him and they agreed on a sum of money. The police then identified his residence, after which the Morality Police raided his home and arrested him. They confiscated tools used for this purpose including laptops and mobile phones used to communicate with those seeking forbidden pleasure.”10
If the person arrested is living with HIV, this is often included in the headline. One such example is a 2014 story published by Youm7 that ran under the headline, “Inside the Nozha Ring: Transsexuals infected with HIV and artificial tools for sexual deviance.”11 Living with HIV is used as further proof of guilt that provides an additional reason to stigmatize these people. The article reads:
“The surprise was finding that two members are infected with HIV. The investigations revealed that the first and second suspects, infected with HIV, are the founders of the ring and they are the ones managing it. Upon medical examination, the first and second suspects were found to be infected with HIV and have high levels of female hormones. The morality police seized birth control pills, cameras, laptops and artificial tools used for sexual acts. The prosecution’s investigations are ongoing.”
This type of coverage contributes to the stigma and discrimination that people living with HIV face, which are some of the major obstacles limiting their ability to access much needed information and services.
Violations of Privacy
Many of the stories reporting on arrest campaigns or entrapment of gay men and those accused of habitual practice of debauchery include personal details and information about the individuals arrested that either reveal their identities or make them easy to find. Some websites publish their full names, as well as information about the districts where they live and their employment or place of work. There have also been instances where passport numbers of deported gay foreign nationals were published.
Such sensationalist coverage often relies on publishing numerous personal photos that show those individuals wearing make-up and women’s clothing, usually photos they had shared on dating applications and websites. There is no way that these news websites would have acquired these images except through the police. This insistence on publishing numerous photos with relatively small news, not exceeding a paragraph or two, confirms that what drives these websites is not the right of the public to know, but rather to create scandals.
In one example in Youm7, the desire to violate privacy of others, was so flagrant that the site covered the same case twice under slightly different headlines. In the second attempt, the headline references the photos attached to the article1213. Moreover, the police, and less often the prosecution, allow the presence of journalists during interrogations in a clear violation of the right to privacy and of the confidentiality of the investigations. These journalists take photos and record videos without the consent of those arrested. Where there are no photos available for a case being covered, the websites use archival images of individuals convicted in past debauchery cases accompanied by a caption along the lines of “A sexual deviant – archival photo.”
It should be noted that in contrast to the inflammatory coverage of arrests, interrogations and harsh sentences levelled against them by Misdemeanours Courts (first instance courts), little attention is paid to acquittals or the reduction of sentences by the Court of Appeal. This reveals the desire of such websites to only cover “sex scandals”. Such websites already condemn those arrested before a verdict is reached. For example they don’t use terms such as, “the defendant”, or “according to police reports”. In addition to completely ignoring the principle of presumption of innocence (ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat, Latin for the burden of proof is on the one who declares, not on one who denies), dictating that defendants are innocent until proven guilty. They further pay no attention to the privacy of those arrested and at the same time ignore when sentences are reduced or when they are acquitted. As such it is a coverage that undermines the lives of individuals and is unaware of the damage it inflicts on those individuals as a result of this slander and preconceived judgements.
One of the families interviewed by EIPR researchers was forced to leave their home and move to another governorate after news of the arrest of one of their sons in a debauchery case became public. In another example, one of the defendants in the Bab al-Bahr case attempted suicide after the acquittal and his release from detention because he felt unable to cope with society, and particularly the attention from neighbours and colleagues.
The media as a partner in the security crackdown: media informants
Media personnel play significant roles in incitement against gay men, transgender women and men who have sex with men, as evidenced by the above. Especially with the assistance of the police, in seeking to create grand sex scandals. In these instances, the media stops playing its role in covering the news and turns into an instigator for the Ministry of Interior against those individuals, going as far as reporting them and even accompanying the police when conducting those arrests.
The two most prominent cases of incitement against gay men, or those perceived as such, was what Talk Show host Tamer Amin did, in what is known in the media as “the deviants’ marriage” and what Talk Show host Mona Iraqi did, in the case of Bab al-Bahr Bathhouse.
In the case known in the media as the “sexual deviants’ wedding” or the “gay wedding video,” Amin’s intervention unfolded over several stages. First, he broadcasted parts of a video that had been widely viewed on YouTube of two young men exchanging rings on a Nile boat. He called for the police to quickly intervene to arrest the people who appeared in the video, which, he said spreads debauchery and vice. In another episode, one of the two men called in and Amin interrogated him on air about his sexual orientation and about the nature of his relationship with the other man shown in the video. After the arrests of all eight men who appeared in the video, Amin praised the role of the police in going after gay men.
The press, in its turn, described the scenes on the boat as14 “shameful, regrettable scenes that anger God, undermine public modesty and constitute felony crimes.” The arrests were depicted as a major achievement for the Morality Police in Cairo and Alexandria.15 Although a friend of one of the men who was exchanging rings on the video told EIPR that he turned himself into the police, the media praised the role of the police in pursuing the suspects and published the name of the young man. The media celebrated the statement of the Public Prosecutor about the importance of quickly referring the suspects to court in order to “protect society’s values.”16
In the case of the Bab al-Bahr bathhouse, television presenter Mona Iraqi announced on 7 December 2017, on the Facebook page of her program “The Hidden” her role in exposing a “den of group deviance” at the bathhouse, by reporting it to the police. Later, she broadcast a video of herself accompanying the morality police during the raid on the bathhouse as she took photos and videos of the men without their consent who, as visitors at a bathhouse, were almost naked. Iraqi came under attack from a number of media figures in the press, and was criticized by visitors on her show discussing HIV. She then claimed that her actions had been motivated by serving the interest of the men as she wanted to make sure they were protected from the dangers of HIV.
The Bab al-Bahr bathhouse received wide-scale media coverage, as expected, characterized by the themes outlined above of inflammatory, stigmatizing language, sensationalism and the violation of the privacy of those arrested. Youm7, for example, published the full details, with the names of those arrested, the districts they live in as well as other personal details. The story ran under the headline “Youm7 publishes the complete names and details of the 5 suspects leading a sexual deviants ring in a bathhouse in Azbakiya along with 21 other suspects.”17 It is noteworthy that the website published details that contradict the report of the police and prosecution. In December 2014, Youm7 stated that the Forensic Medicine Authority had found that 12 of the arrested men had “practised sexual deviancy,”18 contradicting the report of the Forensic Authority obtained by EIPR and the ruling of the Azbakiya Misdemeanours Court’s acquittal, itself published by Youm7.19
Even in covering the acquittal, Youm7 continued to use stigmatizing language. The story of the ruling ran under the headline, “The acquittal of the sexual deviants in Bab al-Bahr bathhouse.” In Vetogate’s coverage of the defamation case against Iraqi filed by the defendants’ lawyer, the headline read, “The Public Prosecution orders an investigation into Mona Iraqi’s defamation of the sexual deviants of Ramses.”20
Equating consensual relationships with crimes of sexual violence
A dangerous pattern that EIPR documented in the media coverage of what is technically termed, “debauchery” and what is known in the media as “sexual deviance” cases is the absence of any distinction between same-sex consensual sexual relations and sexual assaults committed against others of the same sex, whether adults or minors. This confusion is done under the pretext that all of these “incidents” are “cases and incidents of deviance”. We find that the one of the most used terms is “sexual deviance”, and it is used in the news instead of “debauchery”. “Debauchery” is meant here to refer to homosexuality.
Although homosexuality is not criminalized by law, as explained before, and what is criminalized is “habitual practice of debauchery”, defined as a man having sex with other men indiscriminately, media coverage as described above gives the reader the incorrect impression that homosexuality in of itself is a crime according to the law. The aforementioned media coverage does not make the distinction between same-sexual activity done with minors, under 18 years of age (which is considered assault or violation according to the law) or between adults.
The most illustrative example of this lack of distinction between consensual sexual relations and sexual violence is a November 2014 case of the rape of male students who were exploited for financial gain by their teacher. The incident received coverage by several news websites, we discuss here the coverage of three news sites. Two of them employed the following identical headline, “The fall of a ring of sexual deviants practising debauchery in a school in Helwan.”21 These articles reported only that the Morality Police had arrested six people including a teacher practising “deviancy and debauchery” with his students, while the third coverage22, covered by Youm7, included more details. It stated that the teacher lured the students to practice “deviancy and debauchery with him.” Youm7, however, made no reference to the fact that adult teachers engaging in sex with high school students less than 18 years of age would amount to rape. The legal character given to such a crime is “indecent assault.” This case particularly calls for a harsher sentence given that the perpetrator was someone with authority over the students.
The articles also make no distinction between the teacher’s rape of minor students, consensual relations between the teacher and his friends, and the teacher’s exploitation of students by offering them to sex seekers for money. Although the piece uses the term “financial gain,” the way the article is formulated suggests that all the actors are implicated in the same way and that all those actions are acts of sexual deviance and debauchery.
The headline in another case in August 2016 indicated that four people were arrested “for participating in a sexual deviance party.”23 The article relates that “an individual filed a police report for theft after being lured by someone to a meeting. Police interrogations showed that the claim was untrue, and that the two had communicated online and agreed to meet. When the man went to the apartment, he found “sexual deviants having a party and they forced him to take part.” This kind of coverage makes it unclear whether if the person was lured by a number of men with the intention of raping him or if it was a robbery and using his sexuality to blackmail him through entrapment via dating websites and applications for men who have sex with men or transgender women. It is also not clear whether the person who filed the report was arrested along with the others or not. Moreover, no legal charge exists against having a “sexual deviance party.” The charge is the habitual practice of debauchery.
Coverage of crimes of blackmail, theft or murder (what amounts to hate crimes) of gay and transgender people
Media coverage of crimes of murder, theft or blackmail in which the victims are LGBTQ individuals or presumed to be so, rarely present the events as crimes. This is the case even when there is overwhelming evidence indicating the occurrence of a hate crime24. Crimes of blackmail and theft portray the perpetrator as exploiting the “person’s desire to practice sexually deviant acts.” In cases of murder, the coverage usually condemns both the perpetrator and the victim for their “sexual deviance.” There are even examples of the coverage reaching the point of highlighting the motivation of the murderer in a way that appears sympathetic of the perpetrator.
The period of media documentation of this report, also observed a number of murder cases of gay men or those perceived as such, by individuals who are sexually involved with the victims. We discuss here the coverage of seven of these incidents.
The first incident we consider is the murder of an Italian citizen by an Egyptian in 2014. The victim’s stigmatization began with the headline25, “The interrogation of a suspect in the murder of an Italian sexual deviant in Nasr City.” The article itself not only refers to the victim as a “sexual deviant” but goes further, stating that interrogation revealed that the victim “used to lure young men to practice debauchery,” and goes on to relate that it was when he took photos of the perpetrator that he was killed. This presentation implicitly justifies the murderer’s actions given the homosexuality of the victim and the insinuation that he was “luring” young men to practice debauchery, which constitutes some kind of pardon for the murderer from being indicted, as he was misled
And in a crime similar to the one mentioned above, four murders occurred during 2016 and were covered by the same news websites. The first of these was the murder of a 50-year-old gay man by an 18-year-old in January 2016. The news coverage did not clarify whether the perpetrator would be tried as a child or an adult, and indeed made no reference to his minor status. Nor was the question raised of whether the 18-year-old might have been raped. More space was given instead to the young man’s statements which clearly explain the nature of a hate crime. He stated, “I killed him because he is not a man,” going on to say, “He led me to sin and deviance. He exploited my need for money and seduced me. Of course I followed. He had food, money and clothes. He wanted nothing in return except for one thing: pleasuring him with deviant sexual acts.” 26
The shape and tone of the press coverage is almost identical to other two cases of murder that took place in March and May 2016. In both murder cases27 the suspect killed the victim after being asked to switch roles during same-sex sexual relations, meaning that the victim would penetrate the perpetrator. Here we also notice the implicit condemnation of the victim and implicit exoneration of the perpetrator. If the news website explicitly denounces same-sex practices, calling it: “sexual deviance”, there is however, a lesser condemnation of same-sex practised, specifically to the party that plays the role of the “man”. And naturally a bigger stigma to those perceived to be playing the role of the “women”. Hence, it becomes justified when a man would stand up to his threatened masculinity – even when he partakes in a same-sex practice- when asked to assume the role of the women in sexual relations. In the headline of the May murder case, the wording was as such: “the victim and the suspect are both sexual deviants”, in a way equating the perpetrator with the victim because they are both condemned as gay men.
The coverage of a murder that took place in late 2016 clearly demonstrates the sympathy shown to individuals accused of murdering gay men. The coverage reveals, in details, how the perpetrator repeatedly tried to kill the victim by striking him on the head with a vase, then attempting to strangle him with a cord and finally by stabbing him with a knife. Instead of considering all of those actions as sufficient reason for a premeditated intention to kill the victim, the news website tried to justify the murder, by saying that although the victim was bleeding due to his head injury, he insisted on keeping the perpetrator close to him, to be able to “engage him in a sinful relation”. Such persistence drove the perpetrator to try to kill the victim twice, till he succeeded. The perpetrator only received three years mandatory prison sentence for such a crime.28
The two murder cases that took place in 2017 were both in February. In the first murder case committed in Alexandria, according to Youm7 headline: “Sexual Deviancy and Financial Disputes behind the Murder Crime of Worker in Alexandria”.29 This headline is one of the few headlines were the word “crime” to describe the killing of a gay man or men who have sex with men.
Unlike another murder in the same month, a man in his 50s was killed by two individuals, one 21 years old and the other 16 years of age. The murderers also stole from the victim. The headline was: “He asked us for sodomy so we decided to take revenge.” The first line of the article states that, “this person’s deviant desires was the trap that led to his murder.”30 In this incident the perpetrators said” “The victim invited them over to his house to consume alcohol and then to commit sexual deviance, but they refused and went back specifically to take revenge on him, killing and robbing him.
In several incidents of crimes of theft and blackmail, LGBTQ dating applications and websites are used to lure gay and trans individuals under false pretences, to rob them, blackmail them or physically assault them. This is a tactic similar to that employed by the morality police to entrap LGBTQ individuals but with with the intention of arresting them. Doubtless that these news are never covered as cases of blackmail or incidents of homophobia and transphobia. Or that these crimes target specific individuals and punish them for their sexual orientations and practices.
In the headline of one of these incidents31, which occurred in August 2016, the news stated that a man reported to the police that his money as well as his phone had been stolen by two people who forced him to sign 10 blank checks and took nude photos of him as they searched his apartment. The article goes on to state that the police then uncovered the “truth,” which is that this person is a “sexual deviant” and that the two other persons had lured him through online sites to steal his money and blackmail him. In this instance, the police arrested the perpetrators. In another blackmail case, a person stole from several gay individuals whom he had arranged to meet online. Upon meeting them32, he would beat them, steal their money and take photos of them. One of the victims filed a police report. Youm7’s coverage mentioned that the perpetrator “exploited the wantonness of sexual deviants to have sex with others for money and decided to hunt down deviants through social networking websites.”
1 Johansson, Thomas. “Moral panics revisited”. YOUNG, Vol 8, Issue 1, pp. 22 – 35. April 1, 2000. Accessed: 17 November 2017
2Sobhy, Kareem. "Seizure of of Sexual Deviants’ Ring Organizing Parties in a Nasr City Apartment ". Youm7. 2 April 2014. Accessed 15 November 2017 http://www.youm7.com/story/2014/4/3/%D8%B6%D8%A8%D8%B7-%D8%B4%D8%A8%D9%8...
3Maraay, Ahmed and Sharkway Mohamed. "In pictures: The details of the fall of the largest ring of sexual deviants in a public bathhouse in Azbakiya...". Youm7. 9 December 2014. Accessed 15 November 2017 http://www.youm7.com/story/2014/12/9/%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%88%D8%B...
4Abou al-Aaz, Hanaa . “In pictures: The details of the fall of Doudy’s ring for sexual deviants in Alexandria." Youm7. 20 November 2016. Accessed 15 November 2017
5Hussein, Mona and Mahdy, Ahmed. “The Arrest of Abd al-Aleem (Marleemo), the Most Notorious Sexual Deviant in Giza”. 4 February 2017. Accessed 15 November 2017
6Ahmed, Hamdy. "In pictures: A Sexual Deviants’ Ring Arrested while Dressing as Women and Practising Prostitution". Tahia Masr. 19 December 2015. Accessed 15 November 2017
Youssef, Ayman. "Details of the Fall of Internet Sexual Deviants Ring". Mobtada. 19 December 2015. Accessed 15 November 2017.
7Abdel Aziz, Naiara. "The 'Nasr City Sexual Deviance Ring' Case is postponed till 19th of May". Vetogate. 12 May 2014. Accessed 15 November 2017. http://www.vetogate.com/1006518
8Salah, Ahmed. "A Year in Prison for 3 Sexual Deviants in Hurghada". Mobtada. 23 February 2014. Accessed 15 November 2017 https://www.mobtada.com/n_details.php?ID=156085
9al-Gaafari, Ahmed. "A sexual seviant is imprisoned on the charges of practicing vice and attempts to solicit pleasure seekers". Youm7. 24 September 2014. Accessed 15 November 2017
10Aly, Selim. "The imprisonment of a women's hairdresser for 4 days on the charge of running a residence for sexual deviants in Agouza". Youm7. 19 October 2016. Accessed 15 November 2017
11Hashem, Mohamed and Talaat, al-Shaymaa. "In Nozha Ring.. HIV-infected Transsexuals and Artificial Tools for Sexual Deviance". Rosa al-Youssef. 6 May 2014. Accessed: 15 November 2017
12Abdel al-Rady, Mahmoud. "The Fall of the Doudy Ring, the Biggest Gathering of Sexual Deviants in Montaza, in Alexandria". Youm7. 20 November 2016. Accessed: 15 November 2017 http://www.youm7.com/story/2016/11/20/%D8%B3%D9%82%D9%88%D8%B7-%D8%B4%D8...
13Abou al-Aaz, Hanaa . “In pictures: The details of the fall of Doudy’s ring for sexual deviants in Alexandria.", Ibid
14Sobhy, Kareem. "1st of November.. Verdict for the 8 protagonists of the sexual deviants marriage". Youm7. 11 October 2014. Accessed: 15 November 2017 http://www.youm7.com/story/2014/10/11/1-%D9%86%D9%88%D9%81%D9%85%D8%A8%D...
15Taher, Shereen. "Arrest of a sexual deviant who married his friend on a boat by the Nile". al-Wafd. 8 September 2014. Accessed: 15 November 2017
16Metwally, Ahmed. "Public Prosecutor orders the speedy trial of those implicated in the 'sexual deviance marriage..". Youm7. 6 September 2014. Accessed 15 November 2017 http://www.youm7.com/story/2014/9/6/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%A6%D8%A8...
17Maraay, Ahmed and Sharkway Mohamed., Ibid
18Sharkway, Mohammed. “The Forensic Medicine Authority Confirms the Practice of Deviance for the 12 Suspects in the Azbakiya Bathhouse Case:". Youm7. 14 December 2014. Accessed: 15 November 2017
19Mustafa, Amer. "The full text of the reasoning of the acquittal verdict for the defendants of sexual deviance in Bab al-Bahr..". Youm7. 21 January 2015. Accessed: 15 November 2017
20Ayman, Abeer. "Public Prosecutor Orders Investigations in Mona Iraqi's Slander of the Ramsis Sexual Deviance Defendants". Vetogate. 31 January 2015. Accessed: 15 November 2017
21Hashem, Mohamed. "The Fall of Sexual Deviance Ring practising Debauchery inside a School in Helwan". Vetogate. 16 November 2014. Accessed 17 November 2017
"Arrest of a Sexual Deviance Ring Practising Debauchery in a School in Helwan". El-Amwal. 16 November 2014. Accessed 17 November 2017
22 Ibrahim, Mohamed. "Details of the Arrest of a Secondary Teacher Practising Debauchery with his Students and Friends while taking Photos..". Youm7. 16 November 2014. Accessed: 17 November 2017
23Tarek, Fatma. "The Imprisonment of 4 Young Men on the Charge of Participating in a Sexual Deviance Party in al-Marg". Vetogate. 22 August 2016. Accessed: 17 November 2017
24"Violence and offenses motivated by racism, xenophobia, religious intolerance, or by bias against a person’s disability, sexual orientation or gender identity are all examples of hate crime."
"European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights." Hate crime | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. September 11, 2017. Accessed November 17, 2017. http://fra.europa.eu/en/theme/hate-crime
25Sobhy, Kareem. "The Interrogation of a Suspect Accused with Murdering an Italian Sexual Deviant in Nasr City". Youm7. 18 January 2014. Accessed: 17 November 2017. http://www.youm7.com/story/2014/1/18/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%8...
26Fathy, Mahmoud. "The Murderer of Sadat City Worker Confesses: I killed him because was not decent and he lured me to vice and deviance". Youm7. 25 January 2016. Accessed: 17 November 2017
27Ahmed, Ibrahim. "A Fisherman Kills his Friend during a Disagreement while Committing Sexual Deviance in Misr al-Qadima". Youm7. 18 March 2016. Accessed: 17 November 2017.
Selim, Nada. "Investigation in the Murder of an Old Man by an Unemployed Man in Rod al-Farag: The Victim and the Suspect are Sexual Deviants". 13 May 2016. Accessed: 17 November 2017
28 Salama, Ahmed. "A 3 Years Imprisonment for Kung Fu Trainer who killed a Sexually Deviant Engineer". Vetogate. 17 October 2016. Accessed: 17 November 2017
29Abo, al-Ezz. "Sexual Deviancy and Financial Disputes behind the Murder of Worker in Alexandria". Youm7. 6 February 2017. Accessed: 17 November 2017
30Aly, Selim. "Confessions of Two Young Men who Killed a Sexual Deviant in Awsim: He asked sodomy of us, so we decided to take revenge on him". Youm7. 17 February 2017. Accessed: 17 November 2017
31Dwam, Nihal. "An Unemployed Man and a Technician Lure a Sexual Deviant and Photograph him Naked in al-Khosus". Vetogate. 4 August 2016. Accessed: 17 November 2017
32Abo El-Ezz, Hanaa and Abdel Rady, Mahmoud. "A Bodyguard Entraps Sexual Deviants through Facebook: Undresses them, photographs them and robs them". Youm7. 21 November 2016. Accessed: 17 November 2017